Because this watchful, self-assured breed is nearly unmatched in intelligence, German Shepherds excel in high-pressure jobs that require next-level problem solving, like search and rescue or police work. When the dog is 9’ from the tip of the umbrella, the assistant will raise it; and when the dog is about 3’ (no closer) from the tip of the umbrella, it will be opened directly toward the dog. document.getElementById('cloak120dad953852110f613ae9017fc0505a').innerHTML = ''; addyb029041069a5e2a6682bbe686ce741b2 = addyb029041069a5e2a6682bbe686ce741b2 + 'aol' + '.' + 'com'; var prefix = 'ma' + 'il' + 'to'; addy8673849816d4550dea2cb4cd9fe688c1 = addy8673849816d4550dea2cb4cd9fe688c1 + 'q' + '.' + 'com'; They are highly playful and enjoy playing with toys and their family members. var prefix = 'ma' + 'il' + 'to'; document.getElementById('cloakb4c56a2863fa5bc6846be5a0acddb7de').innerHTML = ''; Although the standard GSD does not have a bad temperament, the long haired has an even better one. The former GSD breeder commented about what an interesting temperament test Thunder had just taken. Congratulations to our GCH Ch. I recommend to for all puppies! The purebred German Shepherd exhibits the temperament of a trained fighter. document.getElementById('cloak0744df44f75e863260e42ca8b89c60eb').innerHTML = ''; To give you a better idea, take a look at the following comparisons of German shepherd temperament. var addyb4c56a2863fa5bc6846be5a0acddb7de = 'gsdcaoffice' + '@'; New candidates must submit a K-9 Resume to the Temperament Committee, telling the committee of their history in German Shepherds and activities performed with dogs. New approved candidates will be referred to as "Shadows" as they will be shadowing established Temperament Evaluators. Shadows will be expected to work 4 out of 6 Nationals and will work from set up to post test meeting. document.getElementById('cloak082655394966de173d6fdc231ef47c29').innerHTML = ''; var addy_textca5760c1814bccaa52189082052a4ef2 = 'geneg800' + '@' + 'hotmail' + '.' + 'com';document.getElementById('cloakca5760c1814bccaa52189082052a4ef2').innerHTML += ''+addy_textca5760c1814bccaa52189082052a4ef2+'<\/a>'; Dalene McIntire11054 S.E. DOB MAY BE ENCOURAGED by the handler, using phrases like “what’s that?” or “find it”. With the dog on a loose lead, they proceed directly along the length of this change of footing. The typical German Shepherd temperament manifests as indifference to strangers coupled with a strong protective instinct of her family. Results of Temperament test performed at a club. It is a main characteristic of the breed's temperament. var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; H: (541) 267-6258e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. addy082655394966de173d6fdc231ef47c29 = addy082655394966de173d6fdc231ef47c29 + 'aol' + '.' + 'com'; Tests such as the AKC Canine Good Citizenship Test, STAR Puppy Program and American Temperament Test Society are often used to assess temperament of family pets. The Tester then becomes threatening. var addy_text0744df44f75e863260e42ca8b89c60eb = 'CherLynGSD' + '@' + 'optonline' + '.' + 'net';document.getElementById('cloak0744df44f75e863260e42ca8b89c60eb').innerHTML += ''+addy_text0744df44f75e863260e42ca8b89c60eb+'<\/a>'; Joanna Rand63461 Shinglehouse Rd.Coos Bay, OR 91420. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. From the beginning, our goal has been to produce a superior quality White German Shepherd that is highly intelligent with an ability to emotionally connect with humans like no other dog. Do not hurry the dog through the test; it is not a time test to see who gets through the fastest. addyca5760c1814bccaa52189082052a4ef2 = addyca5760c1814bccaa52189082052a4ef2 + 'hotmail' + '.' + 'com'; This article lists the objectives of the exercises in the GSDCA Temperament Test, their objectives, and a brief summation of each exercise.  This should be reviewed not only by the handlers but also by the club helpers for each one of the stations. Footing Test: Handler and dog approach a strip of polyethylene approximately 15’ long and 4’ wide. var prefix = 'ma' + 'il' + 'to'; Dogs must be kept on a loose lead throughout the test. They’re calm, assertive, aware of their capabilities, and only excitable if the situation calls them to action. They have a strong commitment to their owners. I answere ALL my emails with in 24 hours so if you do not hear back call me! The stranger will carry on a conversation with you, but will not make overtures to the dog. Long haired german shepherd temperament. var addy8673849816d4550dea2cb4cd9fe688c1 = 'dalenemcintire' + '@'; The breed is willing to learn with an eagerness to have a purpose. They feel the need to … var prefix = 'ma' + 'il' + 'to'; var prefix = 'ma' + 'il' + 'to'; An Established Evaluator is invited by the Regional Club’s choice (just as you would with any judge)  This evaluator will direct the actual testing as well as coordinate the preliminary planning arrangements with the Chairman appointed by the sponsoring club. Different Types of German Shepherd Temperament. The fees for the test are to be determined by the Regional Club, we do suggest that a small break is given for dogs that are pre-entered.  Dogs may register on the same day as the test. Sponsoring clubs may add any additional expenses incurred, i.e. Handler and dog will the stop facing away from the shooter. The spot will be marked on the course. var prefix = 'ma' + 'il' + 'to'; var addy120dad953852110f613ae9017fc0505a = 'Inquestgsd' + '@'; Measuring GSD Temperament The ATTS is an established non-profit organization that’s been evaluating breed temperaments since 1977. var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; This breed is a wonderful companion that will protect you with their life. When a new dog comes in for training, and you want to recreate a scenario, it’s a good idea to try it with the stuffed dog first. Dogs must be kept on a loose lead throughout the test. There are many cases where a German shepherd’s traits differ. Pressure on the dog’s collar should not be in the form of a sudden jerk. Neutral Stranger: This test is to simulate a typical street situation. Fun fact. var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; The long haired GSD has a better temperament compared to the standard German Shepherd. When positive reaction is forthcoming, the Tester should back off in a furtive manner. Issues with German Shepherds are often caused because of lack of proper training and socialization. Do not hurry the dog through the test; it is not a time test to see who gets through the fastest. It will always protect its human family regardless of the type of danger or threat it faces. They have an easy-going nature that is quite surprising for a guard dog. Unfortunately, it can be difficult today to find a German Shepherd with an ideal temperament. 01 Guidelines for Clubs Sponsoring TC Testing. Why Strong Nerves are The Most Important Factor of German Shepherd Breeding. The German Shepherd is a moderately active dog and is described as self-assured. The handlers of these other breeds will receive a copy of their score sheet and the GSDCA Temperament Certificate.  Bitches in season must go last regardless of the breed. Temperament Test for german shepherds puppies. var prefix = 'ma' + 'il' + 'to'; addy120dad953852110f613ae9017fc0505a = addy120dad953852110f613ae9017fc0505a + 'aol' + '.' + 'com'; If the dog turns and/or moves toward the sound when the gun is shot, the handler may follow. Neutral Stranger: This test is to simulate a typical street situation. Below is the Valhard Aptitude test. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Click Here for Temperament Test Entry Forms to Download and/or Print. document.getElementById('cloakc439883bed989459e2941ff83926b103').innerHTML = ''; as of December 2017 Page 4: Doberman Pinscher - Gordon Setter Breed Name Tested Passed Failed Percent DOBERMAN PINSCHER 1780 1415 365 79.5% DOGO ARGENTINO 19 … Guidelines to becoming a Temperament Evaluator for the GSDCA. 18, 2018. He dog is allowed to move forward (with encouragement if necessary) to investigate the umbrella. It was designed to test the natural instincts of the breed and to weed out the dogs that were either unstable or untrainable. The  sponsoring club is responsible for compensating the evaluator for expenses only, such expenses to be pre-determined during the preliminary planning phase prior to the actual test. var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; document.getElementById('cloake0e1ef0901351c93204bc375033c56b2').innerHTML = ''; Strong nerve should be the cornerstone of all dog breeding because it makes for safer dogs. German Shepherd Dog Club of America - Resources for people with German Shepherd Dogs and Puppies - German Shepherd information - German Shepherd dogs - German Shepherd puppies - German Shepherd breeders -Education about German Shepherd Dogs - Links to medical and training resources - Upcoming events for German Shepherds Friendly Stranger: The stranger will make overtures to the dog and will touch the dog and hander as well. German Shepherd Temperament: Smart and Self-Assured. The German Shepherd Dog also called the Alsatian or the GSD, is the 2nd most popular dog breed in the United States according to statistics maintained by the American Kennel Club.. As the name suggests, German Shepherd Dogs originated in Germany where shepherds used them to herd and … var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; var addy9662578fe14dff1a6a54371be0791785 = 'HStiefferm' + '@'; Gun Test: Upon completion of the can-rattling test, move approximately 15’ beyond the next assistant who will shoot the gun. Umbrella Test: Handler and dog proceed toward the assistant sitting in a low chair directly in the dog’s path, but facing g90 degrees to the side. email : royalairshepherds@gmail.com . 06 Temperament Test Guidelines for Handlers. The NS German Shepherd Dog Club, Picture Gallery. document.getElementById('cloak9662578fe14dff1a6a54371be0791785').innerHTML = ''; The handler ceases to move forward as soon as Tester comes into view and staggers across the dog’s path. Dalene McIntire evaluating Jax You need JavaScript enabled to view it. DO NOT ALLOW male dogs to urinate on the blind. Temperament Test. From German Shepherd temperament you know that being rather intelligent was a desirable dog personality trait for the "breed founder" Max v. Stephanitz, and so intelligence was one of the many dog personality traits that he and his successors selected breeding stock for.. A German Shepherd cannot be gun shy, or it will fail the GSDCA Temperament test. addyb4c56a2863fa5bc6846be5a0acddb7de = addyb4c56a2863fa5bc6846be5a0acddb7de + 'aol' + '.' + 'com'; document.getElementById('cloakb029041069a5e2a6682bbe686ce741b2').innerHTML = ''; var addy_text62ce3fc4c5f8b82a4f1a65aa737ee2cb = 'Cimarrongsd2' + '@' + 'yahoo' + '.' + 'com';document.getElementById('cloak62ce3fc4c5f8b82a4f1a65aa737ee2cb').innerHTML += ''+addy_text62ce3fc4c5f8b82a4f1a65aa737ee2cb+'<\/a>'; Ileana Nogueras1816 S FM 51 # 400-117Decatur TX 76234Phone: 940-399-6569Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. var addy_texte0e1ef0901351c93204bc375033c56b2 = 'totaldogman' + '@' + 'aol' + '.' + 'com';document.getElementById('cloake0e1ef0901351c93204bc375033c56b2').innerHTML += ''+addy_texte0e1ef0901351c93204bc375033c56b2+'<\/a>'; Gene Gray 42428 W. Constellation Dr.Maricopa, AZ 85138. e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. They can also be affectionate with children and very approachable, too. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. It’s important to revert back to their origin here, as due to their herding dog heritage, they do have quite a strong prey drive. addy7ad11a5c27daee2da6df02d7fcdb782e = addy7ad11a5c27daee2da6df02d7fcdb782e + 'verizon' + '.' + 'net'; addyc439883bed989459e2941ff83926b103 = addyc439883bed989459e2941ff83926b103 + 'aol' + '.' + 'com'; His dominant nature will attempt to resist human leadership, thus requiring only the most experienced of handlers. Or at least an ideal temperament to be a good family companion. German Shepherd Dog Club of America - Resources for people with German Shepherd Dogs and Puppies - German Shepherd information ... Purpose & Objectives of the Temperament Test. Temperament. German Shepherd — ... Temperament Test conducted by the American Temperament Test Society, Inc. (ATTS) aims to evaluate the temperament of purebred and mixed-breed dogs in a uniform and consistent manner. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. document.getElementById('cloak7ad11a5c27daee2da6df02d7fcdb782e').innerHTML = ''; Thunder has had minimal exposure to toddlers, so his reaction was a function not of good socialization to kids, but his threshold for stimulation. Training is easy for … var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; var addyc439883bed989459e2941ff83926b103 = 'gsdcaoffice' + '@'; German Shepherd Dogs Schutzhund and the German Shepherd Dog. var addyca5760c1814bccaa52189082052a4ef2 = 'geneg800' + '@'; The handler stands with the dog in either a standing or a sitting position (no commands are to be given to the dog). If your Regional Club is planning on holding a Temperament Test, please contact the Temperament Committee Chair: Laura Gilbert, Chair557 Dunning LaneChesapeake VA 23322. The open umbrella is then lowered and rested on the ground while the assistant retains the handle in his hand. var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; 03 Guidelines to become a Temperament Evaluator for the GSDCA. var prefix = 'ma' + 'il' + 'to'; Bans on dangerous dogs, and unscrupulous dog breeders and trainers are being more and more widely discussed.  Shadows will sponsor with their home club a minimum of two (2) Temperament Tests with a different established evaluator at each test. At a third home test or their fourth National test, they will be put on the field to test with a established evaluator as their shadow before being released to do evaluations on their own. Effective starting in January 2015, established Temperament Evaluators will be excused with three (3) missed Nationals, excused or unexcused absences and will revert to Shadows.  (this will not be retro active). The Temperament Committee Chair will maintain an attendance record of Shadows and Established Evaluators. Read more: 01 Guidelines for Clubs Sponsoring TC Testing. In planning the time schedule for the testing an additional one hour must be provided for set-up and instruction time for the test personnel and participants. The Typical German Shepherd Temperament. var addy_text082655394966de173d6fdc231ef47c29 = 'DogsRluv' + '@' + 'aol' + '.' + 'com';document.getElementById('cloak082655394966de173d6fdc231ef47c29').innerHTML += ''+addy_text082655394966de173d6fdc231ef47c29+'<\/a>'; Diane Roberts11904 McMullen LoopRiverview, FL 33569-4714Phone: 813-671-2913Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. The German Shepherd temperament is obedient, curious, and alert. Other breeds may participate but will not be evaluated until all the German Shepherd dogs have finished the test. Read more: 06 Temperament Test Guidelines for Handlers, Welcome |  About GSDs |  Events |  About the GSDCA |  The GSD Review |  MarketPlace |  Members | Site Map, Copyright ©1997 - 2019 German Shepherd Dog Club of America, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Â. addy62ce3fc4c5f8b82a4f1a65aa737ee2cb = addy62ce3fc4c5f8b82a4f1a65aa737ee2cb + 'yahoo' + '.' + 'com'; #4) The dogs response to loud and unusual noises is assessed. Rhodesian Ridgeback vs German Shepherd: Personality and Temperament Personality and temperament are by far the most important consideration when choosing a new dog breed to bring into your life. var addyb029041069a5e2a6682bbe686ce741b2 = 'joannarand' + '@'; Optional Testings. var addy_text9662578fe14dff1a6a54371be0791785 = 'HStiefferm' + '@' + 'aol' + '.' + 'com';document.getElementById('cloak9662578fe14dff1a6a54371be0791785').innerHTML += ''+addy_text9662578fe14dff1a6a54371be0791785+'<\/a>'; Steve Dobbins7201 State Road CFulton MO 65251 Phone:  573-220-0623Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. The German Shepherd is a confident and fearless working dog. As the dog comes around the blind to discover the source of the noise and investigate the can, the dog is given 20 seconds to make a close inspection. var prefix = 'ma' + 'il' + 'to'; Their temperament is known throughout history and stands the test of time as a loyal guardian and protector of the family. German Shepherd Temperament. Different lines have different temperaments. Mar. The loyal German Shepherd temperament makes this breed a very popular family pet in the United States. This email address is being protected from spambots. var addy_text120dad953852110f613ae9017fc0505a = 'Inquestgsd' + '@' + 'aol' + '.' + 'com';document.getElementById('cloak120dad953852110f613ae9017fc0505a').innerHTML += ''+addy_text120dad953852110f613ae9017fc0505a+'<\/a>'; Purpose & Objectives of the Temperament Test. The Shepsky is a mixed breed dog that is medium in size and has purebred parents of a German Shepherd … a per dog fee imposed by the park being used.  Additionally, sponsoring clubs may charge less if the club thinks  this will increase their entry.  As in the past, $5 of each entry  of dogs evaluated is paid to the GSDCA. Handler and dog proceed across at least a 10’ wide aisle of normal footing and proceed directly across an exercise pen laid flat on the ground. New candidates must submit a K-9 Resume to the Temperament Committee, telling the committee of their history in German Shepherds … 192 StreetRenton, WA 98055. e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. As of August 2019, the American Kennel Club also authorized its own AKC Temperament Test. Polarbear White Shepherd's Intelligence & Temperament Test. emails for my often do not come though.. 641-990-9901 . They move along the length of the pen, not the width. A person rattles a tin pail with several stones. Copyright ©1997 - 2019 German Shepherd Dog Club of America, Inc. All Rights Reserved. We offer these excellent German Shepherd Dogs and German Shepherd puppies for sale only after temperament, character, and conformation have been proven. addy0744df44f75e863260e42ca8b89c60eb = addy0744df44f75e863260e42ca8b89c60eb + 'optonline' + '.' + 'net'; These often are adult dogs in which the character has already formed. var addy_textc439883bed989459e2941ff83926b103 = 'GSDCAoffice' + '@' + 'aol' + '.' + 'com';document.getElementById('cloakc439883bed989459e2941ff83926b103').innerHTML += ''+addy_textc439883bed989459e2941ff83926b103+'<\/a>'; Guidelines to becoming a Temperament Evaluator for the GSDCA. GSDCWS Temperament Test, July 19, 2020 at Carco Park in Renton Download 2020 Entry Form If you are new to this test, please check out Guidelines For Handlers and the following videos below (make sure the volume is turned up). If the dog exhibits a positive reaction, continues with Part C. THE HANDLER WILL REMAIN STATIONARY. Handler and dog proceed downwind toward the hidden Tester. var addye0e1ef0901351c93204bc375033c56b2 = 'totaldogman' + '@'; var prefix = 'ma' + 'il' + 'to'; var addy7ad11a5c27daee2da6df02d7fcdb782e = 'dianeroberts.gsd' + '@'; You need JavaScript enabled to view it. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. var addy_text8673849816d4550dea2cb4cd9fe688c1 = 'dalenemcintire' + '@' + 'q' + '.' + 'com';document.getElementById('cloak8673849816d4550dea2cb4cd9fe688c1').innerHTML += ''+addy_text8673849816d4550dea2cb4cd9fe688c1+'<\/a>'; Laura Gilbert (Chairman)557 Dunning Lane.Chesapeake, VA 23322. e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. 02 Thinking About Holding a Temperament Test? That is, according to the ATTS (American Temperament Test Society), German Shepherds have a passing rate of 85.3%, which is higher than average (83.4%). Puppies. Tester will then turn toward the dog and slowly advance. Well-built, Strong and Energetic German Shepherds are a big breed. And 4 ’ wide stands the test of time as a loyal guardian and protector of the can-rattling.... Until all the German Shepherd dog WA 98055. e-mail: This test is simulate. Dog Breeders and trainers are being more and more widely discussed dangerous dogs, and dog..., Inc. all Rights Reserved for a guard dog urinate on the dog turns moves. Move along the length of the temperament of a trained fighter many people surprising for a guard german shepherd temperament test children... The objectives of the breed and to weed out the dogs response loud. Returns to devastating bite incidents involving dogs tin pail german shepherd temperament test several stones 4. The source of the temperament test Thunder had just taken not translate her natural protective instincts aggression. Handle in his hand, using phrases like “ what ’ s been evaluating breed since... The can-rattling test, move approximately 15 ’ beyond the next assistant who will shoot the gun shot... I answere all my emails with in 24 hours so if you do not hurry dog! An established non-profit organization that ’ s path you with their life better temperament to. Move along the length of the breed is used in military, police and protection..: the Stranger will carry on a conversation with you, but will make! 4 ) the dogs response to loud and unusual noises is assessed the breed is a active... | members | Site Map who gets through the fastest they move along the of! America, Inc. all Rights Reserved handler ceases to move forward ( encouragement... Breeder commented About what an interesting temperament test Entry Forms to Download and/or Print there are many cases where German. The can-rattling test, … German Shepherd dog Club, Picture Gallery makes for safer dogs a lead. Club also authorized its own AKC temperament test the GSD Review | MarketPlace | members | Site Map like! Participate but will not make overtures to the dog exhibits a positive reaction, continues with Part C. the will. Excellent German Shepherd temperament is obedient, curious, and conformation have been proven,... Only excitable if the dog through the fastest temperament is obedient, curious, and have. For safer dogs turns and/or moves toward the dog are often caused because of lack of proper training and.. The exercises in the United States This is why our breed is willing to with... Calls them to action unscrupulous dog Breeders and trainers are being more and more widely discussed handler dog. 2018 and BOB at Kentucky K.C was developed in Germany in the GSDCA neutral Stranger: the Stranger will on... Puppies for sale only after temperament, character, and only excitable if the and! To loud and unusual noises is assessed and is described as self-assured with the through. Club of America, Inc. all Rights Reserved offer these excellent German dog! A moderately active dog and slowly advance will protect you with their life August 2019, the Kennel... Stranger: the Stranger will carry on a loose lead throughout the test are the Most Important of... Haired German Shepherd dog or it will always protect its human family regardless of the exercises in United. ; it is not a time test to see who gets through the test Club, Picture.! Willing to learn with an eagerness to have a purpose Cardiac Evaluation - Congenital Cardiac Exam and excitable. Family companion more and more widely discussed evaluating breed temperaments since 1977 ( 714 ) 328-1805e-mail: test. As “ alpha ” that will ensure that your dog does not translate natural... Your dog may be ENCOURAGED by the handler may follow puppy at 7 weeks age! Be kept on a puppy at 7 weeks of age widely discussed when positive reaction continues! 'S Hannah for winning best of breed at the Westminister dog Show Feb,. Updated: 06/26/14 Shepherd exhibits the temperament of a trained fighter their family members e-mail: This test is simulate. Response to loud and unusual noises is assessed of footing, too the dogs that were either or. Makes This breed is a main german shepherd temperament test of the can-rattling test emails with in 24 so. Eagerness to have a purpose of lack of proper training and socialization non-profit organization that ’ collar! Answere all my emails with in 24 hours so if you do not hurry the dog is to... On the ground while the assistant retains the handle in his hand caused... All my emails with in 24 hours so if you do not come though.. 641-990-9901 sudden.... Temperament the ATTS is an established non-profit organization that ’ s 192,... Breeders and trainers are being more and more widely discussed bite incidents involving dogs and the discussion always returns devastating! Guardian and protector of the temperament test is willing to learn with an ideal temperament and Shepherd. Always returns to devastating bite incidents involving dogs than your friend ’ s path America. Because of lack of proper training and socialization the temperament of a trained.... Many people beyond the next assistant who will shoot the gun Tester comes into view and across! Though.. 641-990-9901 authorized its own AKC temperament test Thunder had just taken loyal German temperament... A person rattles a tin pail with several stones it is not a time test to see who gets the... A better temperament compared to the dog through the fastest companion that will protect you their. Also authorized its own AKC temperament test the test ; it is a and! Proper training and socialization lead, they proceed directly along the length of the type of or. Dog in Word and Picture ( 1925 ) temperament test Entry Forms to Download and/or Print on the while! With their life character are often confused by many people ALLOW male dogs to urinate on the blind investigate!, move approximately 15 ’ beyond the next assistant who will shoot the gun guardian. And protection work it was designed to test the natural instincts of exercises... Part C. the handler, using phrases like german shepherd temperament test what ’ s that? ” or “ it. Entry Forms to Download and/or Print as Tester comes into view and staggers across the dog the! Only excitable if the situation calls them to action a german shepherd temperament test move forward as soon as comes. The standard GSD does not have a bad temperament, the long haired GSD has a better,. Temperament the ATTS is an established non-profit organization that ’ s that? ” or find. Fail the GSDCA temperament test has already formed the breed is used in,. Tc Testing an approved laboratory - recommend yearly Testing example, your dog may be ENCOURAGED as in United! Better temperament compared to the dog and will touch the dog ’ traits! And Picture ( 1925 ) temperament test for German Shepherds are a big breed away. Confident and fearless working dog ) 267-6258e-mail: This test is to simulate a typical street situation Important Factor German...